Surreal of Approval

This is a photo.

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I took it one day on the water. It was on a Saturday morning or Sunday when I was sipping coffee and and watching the concentric circles expanding on the water, not knowing if they came from a diving bird, or something else.

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And then, it broke the surface, or should I say, came through a portal and explored the marina wondering where it had landed. It was like that, it really was.

I love these pictures of the same, small seal that swam in through a Tardis of marbled endpapers. It came. It swam. It wandered about and it ate. Then, it disappeared.

 

Zen Garden

Due to social activities beyond my control, I’m late to post my final post for the 2016 A to Z Blog Challenge. As always, I learned so much and met some wonderful new people. Congratulations to all my friends who also finished the challenge. Wishing you the best in your writing endeavors for the month of May.

Now, time for a little nature and silence.

Yellow

On the spectrum of visible light, yellow is a color between green and orange.

“According to surveys in Europe, Canada and the United States, yellow is the color people most often associate with amusement, optimism, gentleness, and spontaneity, but also with duplicity, envy, jealousy, avarice, and, in the U.S., with cowardice,” states an article at Wikipedia.

The color we think of as yellow was derived from the ochre family of pigments, all of which contain iron oxide-hydroxide—also known as limonite. Limonite is not the only source of the color yellow and fall leaves, bananas, canaries, and egg  yolks all appear yellow due to the presence of carotenoids. Yellow is particularly attractive to birds and insects.

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Yellow or gold ochre pigment

 

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Note publication name lists Charlotte Perkins Steson

I’ve tried to imagine what it would be like to live in a yellow room, and all I come away with is a distant memory of Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s short story, “The Yellow Wallpaper,” about the descent into madness of a young Victorian-era woman. A copy is available in the link above where you can see a version of the book made available by the National Institutes of Health. Since watching the show “Hidden Killers of the Victorian Home,” a fascinating series for history lovers everywhere, I can’t help but wonder if additives to the wallpaper referenced were a partial cause of the main character’s madness. At the time, arsenic-based Scheele’s Green was used in many things in the home—including foods—to disastrous effects.

Wow. This post sounds truly morbid, and again I must affirm that yellow has always made me feel uneasy and claustrophobia, and hence I will dispatch my duties and end this post before I am further discomfited. My fainting couch is currently being reupholstered and I have nowhere to take to in event of a fit.

For more on deadly additives to the historical home, check out this this great post called “Death on the Walls-Poison in Victorian Britain.”

Xanthan Gum: Our Chemical Chum

Xanthan Gum is a common additive found in everything from eye drops to concrete.

As a thickener, it’s used in chewing gum, yogurt, and soup. As an emulsifier, it prevents the formation of crystals in ice cream. In salad dressings, it blends oil and water, suspends spices and herbs, and provides tantalizing coverage and flavor for greens. It binds water to fruit fillings, leaving pastry crust crispy and firm. A mainstay of gluten-free cooking, it lends stickiness to wheat-free doughs. Whether as stabilizing, suspending, or viscosity agent, this miracle chemical has vastly impacted our lives since it first received FDA approval in 1969.

A polysaccharide synthesized by the bacteria Xanthomonas campestris, it’s responsible for the black rot found on broccoli, cauliflower, and leafy greens grown in the garden. Cheap to manufacture and extraordinarily versatile, this pale, odorless, free-flowing powder is soluble in warm or cold water and is stable in the presence of enzymes, salts, acids and bases. First synthesized in quantity during the 1960s, it’s used for a host of consumer, industrial, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical preparations.

How it came to occupy its place in the panoply of culinary additives is a story of history, chemistry, and the struggle for a place at the table—both literal and figurative.

Xanthan gum is one of two well-known breakthroughs from a less well-known female chemist called Allene Rosalind Jeanes (b. July 19th, 1906, d. December 1, 1995) who lived and worked quietly in service of humankind.  A grande dame of science, her life lacked the heady scandals and wider notoriety of Marie Curie, whom I wrote about this time last year.

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A recent graduate                                                  (SOURCE: The Waco Times-Tribune, 28 Jun, 1928)

A summa cum laude graduate of Baylor University (1928), she received her MA in Organic Chemistry at UC Berkeley (1929). For five years, she taught science at Athens College before enrolling at the University of Illinois where she later received her Ph.D. (1938).

It took time for this talented chemist to find work in her field due in part to Depression-era thinking, when such jobs were more often reserved for men. Eventually, she found work at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) before joining the Northern Regional Research Lab (NRRL), a branch of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, where she remained for the rest of her working life. When she joined NRRL in 1941 at its Peoria, Illinois, location, the lab was already famous for its groundbreaking work in deep-tank fermentation and large-scale production of life-saving Penicillin.

At NRRL, Jeanes focused on polysaccharides, complex carbohydrates made up of long chains of polymers (large molecules made up of smaller molecules of repeated types). A simple example of a polysaccharide is starch.

While at the Department of Agriculture’s labs, a chance encounter with a sample of root beer led to scientific breakthrough. Faced with an unexpected viscous sludge and a soda manufacturer’s search for an explanation, she discovered the root beer was contaminated with a bacteria useful in producing Dextran, a polysaccharide commonly found in wheat, corn, rice, and potatoes. Dr. Jeanes and her team isolated the microbe and were considering its uses when researchers in England and Sweden proposed using Dextran as a plasma extender to stabilize  trauma patients en route to blood transfusion. Dextran was widely used in the Korean War before its introduction for civilian use. (Source: Chemical Heritage Foundation)

 

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Amidst more traditional views of womenan acknowledgment of the pioneering work of    Dr. Allene Jeanes for her receipt of the Distinguished Service Award                                       (SOURCE ARTICLE: Atchison Daily Globe, May 19th, 1953)

 

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SOURCE: Bull. Hist. Chem.

 

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Achievements of a world class scientist are juxtaposed against an article on pimples. (SOURCE ARTICLE: The Waco-Times Tribune, 30 Oct 1955)

Similarly, Xanthan gum is another polysaccharide derived from bacteria. Inexpensive to make, effective in quantities as small as 0.1% to 1% of a solution, it can be used in conjunction with Guar gum and/or Locust Bean gum to cumulative effect.  In contrast to the use of lab chemicals, pressure, and high temperature, Dr. Jeanes used fermentation to produce the Xanthan Gum in large quantities. (Source: Chemical Heritage Foundation) To understand better how Xanthan gum is produced, click here for a useful infographic.

 

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Hanging with the big guys.  Dr Allene R. Jeanes is recognized in the Galesburg Register-Mail, May 19th, 1953

 

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Recipients of the 1962 Federal Women’s Award. Dr. Allene R. Jeanes on the far left (SOURCE: John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum)

 

During the course of a lifetime of service, Dr. Jeanes received 10 patents and wrote in at least 60 publications. She was recognized in her lifetime for her exemplary work, and received the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Distinguished Service Medal (1953), the Garvan Medal (1956) (an Award for American female scientists), and the Federal Women’s Service Award (1962).

She retired in 1976 but continued to work and collaborate for another decade, despite physical frailties, and died in 1995 at the age of 89. She was the first woman inducted into the ARS (Agricultural Research Service) Hall of Fame in 1999.

 

 

 

Winged Wunderkammer

A wunderkammer is a collection of objects much like a curiosity cabinet of old. Some of these collections as gathered over the years have been left to museums such as the Tate or MoMA. Consider this a tiny cabinet of curiosities of moments of movement and of rest.

Gotta wing it: LIFE is calling.

All photos are free images from morgueFile.

Vulpine Adventures Anew

My earlier post about the Gray Fox was eaten after publication by WordPress. If you saw a notification go by, now you know what happened.

I’ll start over again.

The word “vulpine” means like or having to do with foxes.

I’ve loved foxes ever since I saw one darting across our field in the dead of winter, a flourish of color against the drab background of the Irish countryside. I was mesmerized by it as I watched from my window, and hopeful it would run far and fast, for though it wasn’t hunting season, it would be soon.

Many years later, when my son was little, we bought a copy of Run With the Wind by Irish author Tom McCaughren and thus ensued a shared interest in foxes. On fall afternoons, I would cover the kitchen table with an enormous mound of sand-colored, homemade playdough and read McCaughren’s beautiful stories about foxes and their struggle to survive as my son made burrows and dens, planting fake deciduous trees into miniature forests as he organized fox families from his large collection of Schleich and Safari molded plastic fox figures.

Now he’s eighteen and I wonder, does he remember? How hard I had worked to instill in him a love of nature, a respect for the land, a reverence for books and words. I probably overdid it. I overdid many things back then, but not love.

I got up from the computer just now and went to look for the box of foxes. They are somewhere here, hidden among the cartons and tubs of toys awaiting a playroom for grandchildren, the planned work of the upcoming year in which I’ll face everything I was too busy to look at as parenting ran its breakneck course from the start to maturation of one, once small boy. He’s too stressed today with coming AP exams, finals, and graduation for me to ask do you remember? It’s a bad day for sentimentality, even as the box it’s contained in has burst its seams from too many years stored under stacked weight.

The post I shared earlier was about the Gray Fox. Unlike the Red Fox, vulpes vulpes, the Gray Fox is descended from a different line, one in which just one other member exists: the diminutive Channel Island Fox. Red and Gray foxes belong to different genuses altogether.

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Red Fox, vulpes vulpes

Though all foxes are canids, the Gray Fox is native to both North and South America and has the proper name (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). Once the dominant fox in America, it has been displaced by the more adaptable Red Fox and it is now concentrated mainly in the western states. Its closest relatives are the east Asian raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and the African bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis).

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Gray Fox, Urocyon cinereoargenteus

The word cinereoargenteus means ‘ashen silver’, but the muzzles, necks, and tails are tipped with darker fur in the Gray Fox. Its eyes are rounder and lack the slit-like appearance of the Red Fox, and its legs are shorter and lack the distinctive “black stockings” of red foxes. Its paws are smaller, too, yet stronger and uniquely capable: Gray Foxes are the only canids which can climb vertically and dens have be found thirty feet above the ground in the hollowed out sections of trees. This is also explains the scat I found on my chicken coop roof. Gray foxes leap from branch to branch and descend backwards from trees like cats. In many respects, canid though they may be, they seem feline and even their young are called kits.

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Gray Fox, Palo Alto Baylands. Source: Bill Leikam, Wikipedia

 

I took the following pictures during the mating season of 2016 using my Reconyx Hyperfine HC600 .

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This fox lives under our deck and likes to eat layer crumble

 

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Here, it seems to be calling out

 

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Even though the infrared camera is supposed to be silent, many pictures suggest that foxes can hear it just fine.

 

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Cat food is always the first choice by discerning foxes it seems.

 

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Prim feet, eager mouth

 

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An egg is a mouthful yet this fox seems to know how to grab one without breaking it.

 

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And a duck egg is an even bigger challenge!

 

If you’re interested in beautifully written stories set in Ireland, I recommend you check out Tom McCaughren’s work. The first three books in this series are ranked among the top 100 books in Ireland and are published by Penguin Books. They are available through Amazon here.  Should you decide to read them, pleasure consider leaving the author a review.